First isolated from Cannabis in 1940 by Roger Adams, the structure of CBD was not completely elucidated until 1963. Subsequent studies resulted in the pronouncement that THC was the ‘active’ principle of Cannabis and research then focused primarily on it to the virtual exclusion of CBD. This was no doubt due to the belief that activity meant psychoactivity that was shown by THC and not by CBD. In retrospect this must be seen as unfortunate since a number of actions of CBD with potential therapeutic benefit were downplayed for many years. In this review, attention will be focused on the effects of CBD in the broad area of inflammation where such benefits seem likely to be developed. Topics covered in this review are; the medicinal chemistry of CBD, CBD receptor binding involved in controlling Inflammation, signaling events generated by CBD, downstream events affected by CBD (gene expression and transcription), functional effects reported for CBD and combined THC plus CBD treatment.