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Update on the Role of Cannabinoid Receptors after Ischemic Stroke

Journal: Mediators of Inflammation
Publication Year: 2012
Authors: Luciano S. A. Capettini; Silvia Q. Savergnini; Rafaela F. da Silva; Nikos Stergiopulos; Robson A. S. Santos; François Mach; Fabrizio Montecucco

Abstract

Cannabinoids are considered as key mediators in the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis. In
particular, they have been shown to reduce the ischemic injury after acute cardiovascular events, such as acute myocardial
infarction and ischemic stroke. These protective and anti-inflammatory properties on peripheral tissues and circulating
inflammatory have been demonstrated to involve their binding with both selective cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2)
transmembrane receptors. On the other hands, the recent discoveries of novel different classes of cannabinoids and receptors have
increased the complexity of this system in atherosclerosis. Although only preliminary data have been reported on the activities
of novel cannabinoid receptors, several studies have already investigated the role of CB1 and CB2 receptors in ischemic stroke.
While CB1 receptor activation has been shown to directly reduce atherosclerotic plaque inflammation, controversial data have
been shown on neurotransmission and neuroprotection after stroke. Given its potent anti-inflammatory activities on circulating
leukocytes, the CB2 activation has been proven to produce protective effects against acute poststroke inflammation. In this paper,
we will update evidence on different cannabinoid-triggered avenues to reduce inflammation and neuronal injury in acute ischemic
stroke.

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