Cannabis and related compounds have created significant research interest as a promising therapy in many disorders. However, the individual therapeutic effects of cannabinoids and the incidence of side effects are still difficult to determine. Pharmacogenomics may provide the answers to many questions and concerns regarding the cannabis/cannabinoid treatment and help us to understand the variability in individual responses and associated risks. Pharmacogenomics research has made meaningful progress in identifying genetic variations that play a critical role in interpatient variability in response to cannabis. This review classifies the current knowledge of pharmacogenomics associated with medical marijuana and related compounds and can assist in improving the outcomes of cannabinoid therapy and to minimize the adverse effects of cannabis use. Specific examples of pharmacogenomics informing pharmacotherapy as a path to personalized medicine are discussed.