Endocannabinoids and their receptors, mainly the CB1 receptor type, function as a retrograde signaling system in many synapses within the CNS, particularly in GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses. They also play a modulatory function on dopamine (DA) transmission, although CB1 receptors do not appear to be located in dopaminergic terminals, at least in the major brain regions receiving dopaminergic innervation, e.g., the caudate-putamen and the nucleus accumbens/prefrontal cortex. Therefore, the effects of cannabinoids on DA transmission and DA-related behaviors are generally indirect and exerted through the modulation of GABA and glutamate inputs received by dopaminergic neurons. Recent evidence suggest, however, that certain eicosanoid-derived cannabinoids may directly activate TRPV1 receptors, which have been found in some dopaminergic pathways, thus allowing a direct regulation of DA function. Through this direct mechanism or through indirect mechanisms involving GABA or glutamate neurons, cannabinoids may interact with DA transmission in the CNS and this has an important influence in various DA-related neurobiological processes (e.g., control of movement, motivation/reward) and, particularly, on different pathologies affecting these processes like basal ganglia disorders, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. The present review will address the current literature supporting these cannabinoid-DA interactions, with emphasis in aspects dealing with the neurochemical, physiological, and pharmacological/therapeutic bases of these interactions.