Alpha-phellandrene is a very common cyclic monoterpene found in several EOs, which shows extensive biological activities. Therefore, the main focus of the present systematic review was to provide a comprehensive and critical analysis of the state of the art regarding its biological activities and pharmaceutical and food applications. In addition, the study identified essential oils rich in alpha-phellandrene and summarized their main biological activities as a preliminary screening to encourage subsequent studies on their single components. With this review, we selected and critically analyzed 99 papers, using the following bibliographic databases: PubMed, SciELO, Wiley and WOS, on 8 July 2022. Data were independently extracted by four authors of this work, selecting those studies which reported the keyword “alpha-phellandrene” in the title and/or the abstract, and avoiding those in which there was not a clear correlation between the molecule and its biological activities and/or a specific concentration from its source. Duplication data were removed in the final article. Many essential oils have significant amounts of alpha-phellandrene, and the species Anethum graveolens and Foeniculum vulgare are frequently cited. Some studies on the above-mentioned species show high alpha-phellandrene amounts up to 82.1%. There were 12 studies on alpha-phellandrene as a pure molecule showed promising biological functions, including antitumoral, antinociceptive, larvicidal and insecticidal activities. There were 87 research works on EOs rich in alpha-phellandrene, which were summarized with a focus on additional data concerning potential biological activities. We believe this data is a useful starting point to start new research on the pure molecule, and, in particular, to distinguish between the synergistic effects of the different components of the OEs and those due to alpha-phellandrene itself. Toxicological data are still lacking, requiring further investigation on the threshold values to distinguish the boundary between beneficial and toxic effects, i.e., mutagenic, carcinogenic and allergenic. All these findings offer inspiration for potential applications of alpha-phellandrene as a new biopesticide, antimicrobial and antitumoral agent. In particular, we believe our work is of interest as a starting point for further studies on the food application of alpha-phellandrene.