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Neuroprotective and Blood-Retinal Barrier-Preserving Effects of Cannabidiol in Experimental Diabetes

Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and neurotoxicity. These pathologies have been associated with oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines, which may operate by activating their downstream target p38 MAP kinase. In the present study, the protective effects of a nonpsychotropic cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), were examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after 1, 2, […]

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Neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component from Cannabis sativa, on beta-amyloid-induced toxicity in PC12 cells

Alzheimer’s disease is widely held to be associated with oxidative stress due, in part, to the membrane action of b-amyloid peptide aggregates. Here, we studied the effect of cannabidiol, a major non-psychoactive component of the marijuana plant (Cannabis sativa) on b-amyloid peptide-induced toxicity in cultured rat pheocromocytoma PC12 cells. Following exposure of cells to b-amyloid […]

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Neuroprotective Effect of (-)D9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol in N-Methyl-D-Aspartate-Induced Retinal Neurotoxicity

In glaucoma, the increased release of glutamate is the major cause of retinal ganglion cell death. Cannabinoids have been demonstrated to protect neuron cultures from glutamate-induced death. In this study, we test the hypothesis that glutamate causes apoptosis of retinal neurons via the excessive formation of peroxynitrite, and that the neuroprotective effect of the psychotropic […]

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Nonpsychoactive Cannabidiol Prevents Prion Accumulation and Protects Neurons against Prion Toxicity

Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation in the CNS of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres), a structurally misfolded isoform of its physiological counterpart PrPsen. Both neuropathogenesis and prion infectivity are related to PrPres formation. Here, we report that the nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol (CBD) inhibited PrPres accumulation in both mouse and […]

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Molecular Mechanisms of Cannabinoid Protection from Neuronal Excitotoxicity

Cannabinoids protect neurons from excitotoxic injury. We investigated the mechanisms involved by studying N-methyl-Daspartate (NMDA) toxicity in cultured murine cerebrocortical neurons in vitro and mouse cerebral cortex in vivo. The cannabinoid agonist R()-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-[(morpholinyl)- methyl]pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-yl]-(1-naphthalenyl)- methanone mesylate [R()-Win 55212] reduced neuronal death in murine cortical cultures treated with 20 M NMDA, and its protective effect was […]

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Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an orally administered cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study

Objective: Cannabis may alleviate some symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study investigated the effect of an orally administered standardized Cannabis sativa plant extract in MS patients with poorly controlled spasticity. Methods: During their inpatient rehabilitation programme, 57 patients were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of cannabis-extract capsules standardized to […]

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Endocannabinoid signaling in neurotoxicity and neuroprotection

The cannabis plant and products produced from it, such as marijuana and hashish, have been used for centuries for their psychoactive properties. The mechanism for how Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active constituent of cannabis, elicits these neurological effects remained elusive until relatively recently, when specific G-protein coupled receptors were discovered that appeared to mediate […]

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D9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Prevents Methamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity

Methamphetamine (METH) is a potent psychostimulant with neurotoxic properties. Heavy use increases the activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), production of peroxynitrites, microglia stimulation, and induces hyperthermia and anorectic effects. Most METH recreational users also consume cannabis. Preclinical studies have shown that natural (D9- tetrahydrocannabinol, D9-THC) and synthetic cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists […]

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CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors and On-Demand Defense Against Excitotoxicity

Abnormally high spiking activity can damage neurons. Signaling systems to protect neurons from the consequences of abnormal discharge activity have been postulated. We generated conditional mutant mice that lack expression of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 in principal forebrain neurons but not in adjacent inhibitory interneurons. In mutant mice,the excitotoxin kainic acid (KA) induced excessive […]

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Cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis (CAMS) study: safety and efficacy data for 12 months follow up

Objective: To test the effectiveness and long term safety of cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis (MS), in a follow up to the main Cannabinoids in Multiple Sclerosis (CAMS) study. Methods: In total, 630 patients with stable MS with muscle spasticity from 33 UK centres were randomised to receive oral D9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (D9 -THC), cannabis extract, or […]

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